Symptoms of helminths in humans

Treatment of helminthic invasions is carried out with drugs

Worm eggs are microscopic in size. Invisible to the eye, they can be everywhere - in the ground, on transport handrails, door handles, in children's sandbox, on our pet's fur.

How to prevent worm infection or, if it has occurred, how to avoid dangerous complications?

Symptoms of helminths in humans

No one can be considered immune to worm infection. Even with the strictest observance of hygiene rules. To reduce the risk of infection, you need to be as informed as possible about the symptoms of helminthiasis in humans, prevention and treatment of helminthic infections.

The most common helminths:

  • Dirty worm.The parasites belong to the class of nematodes, roundworms in cross section. The length of the female reaches 350 mm, the males are much smaller. Roundworms are dangerous in both the intestinal and migratory phases.

    Intestinal localization of parasites in complicated forms can lead to intestinal obstruction, exit of adult worms into the respiratory tract with the risk of suffocation, bile duct obstruction and other complications. The migratory phase threatens the penetration of larvae into the lungs and other organs with the appearance of serious pathologies.

    Infection with ascariasis occurs through the eggs of parasites that leave the intestines of the patient with feces and mature in the soil to an invasive phase.

  • Diphyllobotrium latum.This is a class of cestodes, one of the representatives of which is broadband. Their characteristic is that they have 3 owners. The main organism in which worms develop to sexually mature individuals are humans and some animals (cats, dogs, pigs, etc. ). Medium hosts for diphyllobotrium latum are freshwater crabs. Medium extra - fish (perch, pike, burbot). Broad tapeworm is infected by eating undercooked fish infected with parasite larvae - plerocercoids.
  • Pinworms. These are nematodes, like roundworms, but much smaller in size. The female has a length of up to 10 mm, the male - up to 5 mm. Enterobiosis is one of the most common helminthiasis. Children are especially susceptible to them.

    The most characteristic manifestation of enterobiasis is itching in the anus. It is explained by the exit of females into the perianal zone to lay eggs. In the folds of the skin, the embryos mature to the invasive phase in 5-6 hours. Getting on the hands when scratching, and then swallowing leads to re-infection.

Dizziness can be a sign of parasites that have entered the human body

Ways of infection

The ways of worm infection are determined by the invasive form of the parasite and the ways of their penetration into the host organism.

Most parasitic worms have two infectious forms - eggs (some cestodes are called oncospheres) and larvae. The latter are sometimes called Finns or Cysticers. Eggs are microscopic in size, usually several tens of micrometers. The larvae can reach a size of several to tens of millimeters.

Worms are most often infected orally - through the mouth.But some types of parasites can invade through the skin or sting insects. When the eggs are swallowed, the embryos contained in them reject the shell, penetrate the intestinal wall into the bloodstream and the blood is distributed throughout the body. Depending on the type of parasite, they can settle in the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, kidneys, brain, eyes.

Intestinal localization of the parasite is most common when infected with larvae. Due to their large size, the larvae cannot penetrate the veins and migrate along with the blood. They remain in the intestine, attach to its wall and grow to a sexually mature state, after which they begin to reproduce.

Worm eggs usually leave the gastrointestinal tract with feces. In some cases, for example, in cestodes, evacuation of eggs from the intestinal tract can be performed with fragments of worms - proglottids. They themselves exit the intestines through the anus.

Allergic skin rash - a symptom of the presence of parasitic worms in the body

The main types of helminthic lesions

The effectiveness of helminth treatment in humans depends on the exact clinical picture and the nature of the lesion caused by the parasites on the body. And they, in turn, depend on the stage of invasion - intestinal or migratory.

Intestinal phase of invasion.During the intestinal stage, the main damage occurs to the patient's digestive system, especially the gastrointestinal tract. Worms damage the intestinal mucosa with their tits. This leads to inflammatory processes and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.

In addition to the fact that worms absorb some of the nutrients, the absorption function of the intestine is also disturbed.Due to the release of antienzymes by parasites, the digestive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract is reduced. All this leads to a lack of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements in the patient's body.

In addition to antienzymes, worms secrete other metabolites that act as toxins on the host organism. To this is added the decay of the bodies of dead worms. As a result, the patient's body is subjected to severe intoxication.

Some types of parasitic worms can penetrate from the gastrointestinal tract into neighboring organs and tissues - biliary tract, gallbladder, liver parenchyma and other systems. Adult roundworms, for example, can penetrate the host's respiratory tract at high intensities of infection. With a large number of parasites, mechanical blockage of the intestine is possible. This can be noticed in both round and ribbons.

When parasitic worms enter the liver parenchyma, abscesses can develop, which require surgical intervention.Intestinal perforation with penetration of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity and the development of peritonitis is not excluded. Due to the harmful effects of adult worms, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis can develop.

Parasites that live in the gut cause pain and heaviness in the abdomen

migratory phase.Due to the possibility of larval embryo penetration into almost every organ, the migratory phase of the invasion may exceed the intestinal phase in terms of severity.

Larvae that develop from eggs in organs and tissues create inflammation and infiltrates. If it happens in the lungs, the invasion manifests itself as bronchitis, pneumonia, asthmatic syndrome.

If parasite eggs penetrate the brain (such as cestode oncospheres), single or multiple Finci bubbles form in its tissues. Their size can reach the size of a tennis ball. Due to the proximity of cysts to brain tissues, their surgical removal is associated with a high risk of rupture of the purulent bladder and the development of secondary infection.

Intoxication of the patient's body with metabolites of live worms and toxins from the decay of their dead bodies leads to allergic reactions. Their result is fever, skin manifestations, headache and dizziness.

Helminth infection can cause headaches


The symptoms of helminth infection depend on many factors. There are manifestations characteristic of a certain type of invasion, but they are few.Most parasitic worms have symptoms similar to other diseases.This makes diagnosis difficult. These common symptoms include the following:

  • Complete deterioration, physical and mental weakness.
  • Nausea, vomiting.
  • Stool disorders, constipation and diarrhea.
  • Discomfort, heaviness, abdominal pain of different localization.
  • Change of appetite up or down.
  • Weight loss without explanation. Including in the background an increase in the amount of food consumed.
  • Itching in the perianal region, feeling as if something is moving there.
  • Allergic manifestations in the form of skin rashes.
  • Cough.
  • Shortness of breath, asthmatic syndrome.
  • Bruxism. Gritting your teeth in your sleep is typical for children with itchy anus.
  • Increased irritability, irritability, insomnia, chronic fatigue, depression.
  • Headache.
  • Fever, usually subfebrile. But sometimes it climbs to high values.
  • Dizziness.

In the initial phase of the invasion, the symptoms may be completely absent or be so insignificant that they are not given much importance. In the future, as the intensity of the disease increases, the symptoms become more pronounced.

The symptoms of helminths in human blood can vary depending on which organ the migrating embryos have settled in.If it turns out that the place of their localization of the lungs, the patient may have a fever, breathing problems may occur.Usually in these cases, the infection is accompanied by a cough - unproductive or with sputum, which may be orange. The latter suggests that the larvae have damaged small blood vessels in the lungs.

Symptoms of helminths are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, heaviness and pain in the abdomen, profuse salivation, disturbed stools and weight loss.

Attention.In severe liver invasion, abscesses may develop with the penetration of purulent contents into the abdominal cavity. This development of the disease endangers the patient's life.

The sign of parasites in the body is the total deterioration of physical and mental condition

Drug treatment

The treatment of invasions depends on many factors. The main ones are the type of parasitic worms, the place of their localization, the stage of the disease (migratory or intestinal), the intensity of the infection, the condition of the patient. But in any case, treatment should be preceded by a diagnosis of the disease.

The most common diagnostic test for infections caused by parasitic worms is the stool test. If it is not enough to make a diagnosis, a general, biochemical and / or enzyme immunoassay is performed.Hardware diagnostics can also be used - ultrasound, radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, etc.Having a complete picture of the disease, the doctor prescribes anthelmintic drugs.

Bitan.Treatment with drugs with a strong active substance can cause side effects. This limits the use of drugs for some categories of patients. Especially for pregnant and lactating women, children younger than a certain age, patients with certain viral and infectious diseases.

Various drugs are prescribed to control intestinal nematodes and to destroy extraintestinal nematodes.

Bitan.Two cycles of treatment with a break of 2-3 weeks are often performed. This is because most antiviral drugs only kill adults. Their larvae and eggs remain intact. After the incubation period, a new generation of worms can emerge from them, the destruction of which will require a second course.

To treat helminths, you need to take the medication prescribed by your doctor.

Use of folk remedies

Treatment with folk remedies takes longer than drug therapy. But this relative shortcoming is compensated by the softness of herbal remedies and the absence of side effects.

There are many plants that have an anthelmintic effect - nettle, tansy, celandine, wormwood, horsetail and many others.Antiparasitic plants contain components that are toxic to cestodes, nematodes and trematodes and usually have a bitter taste.

Many anthelmintic plants also have antiseptic and antibacterial activity. Their effectiveness depends on the proper preparation and application of dosage forms. Here are some of the most popular herbal remedies and products. But you have to understand that this is only a small part of what really exists.

Anthelmintic drugs should be prescribed by a physician based on the diagnosis

Pumpkin seeds

It would not be an exaggeration to say that pumpkin seeds are the most popular anthelmintic drug. They contain cucurbitin, which is very effective against nematodes and cestodes. Pumpkin seeds can be used not only for treatment but also for prevention.

Most cucurbitine is contained in the film, which is located between the core and the shell.Therefore, the seeds are best consumed unpeeled. For treatment it is necessary to eat 300 g of seeds at a time. 100 g for adults and 70 g for children are enough for prevention. From pumpkin seeds you can prepare solutions for enemas, which are effective against worms that are localized in the colon.


Garlic is a universal remedy that is not inferior in effectiveness to pumpkin seeds. It contains phytoncides and essential oils, which have a depressant effect on parasitic beings of all kinds. Garlic is very active against nematodes, especially ascaris.


Parasitic worms do not tolerate alkaline conditions well, so baking soda is an effective remedy against them. It can also be taken orally, but the greatest effect of sodium bicarbonate is achieved by preparing an enema solution from it. It should be used when localizing nematodes or cestodes in the colon.


Honey should not be advertised as a medicine, but not everyone knows that it is effective as an anthelmintic. To take for this purpose, you need half a teaspoon 9 times a day.You must refuse food during the day.

Only fresh vegetables are allowed the next day. Since honey has no contraindications and side effects, it can be used to treat young children. It is recommended to give them a glass of water sweetened with a teaspoon of honey.

Honey is a folk anthelmintic drug that removes parasites in adults and children.

carrot juice

Even official medicine, which is sometimes very strict with folk remedies, recognizes that carrot juice has an anthelmintic effect. The amount of juice drunk is not limited by any requirements, everything should be within reason.

Castor oil

Many species of nematodes and cestodes are localized in the gut. Some laxatives work well against them, especially the well-known castor oil. This recipe is suitable for adults. 80 ml of cognac is mixed with castor oil and drunk in one sip before bed.

The procedure takes 3 days. Children are given a little sweet drink (compote, juice, tea) at 1-2 o'clock in the morning, and after half an hour - 15-30 g of castor oil.


If the parasitic worms do not manifest clearly (for example, in the form of whole individuals or their fragments in the feces), it is almost impossible to independently determine the presence of invasion. Therefore, at the first appearance of symptoms that may indicate an infection, do not hesitate to consult an infectologist.

There are tools in his arsenal that allow you to establish an invasion with one hundred percent probability. Delay in contacting the clinic or self-treatment based on self-diagnosis can end sadly, even death.